Womens sex free engeland

In any case, just about at that time the "Church" broke apart because of the Reformation.

While Roman Catholicism redefined itself under a papal magisterium, Lutheranism, Calvinism and Anglicanism asserted other sources for divine authority.

The Witch Hunts were an attempt at "femicide" or "gendercide," meaning the persecution of the female sex, equivalent to genocide.

FACT: While a few witch hunters abhorred all women, the necessity for women to be involved in procreation of our species and the lack of means to carry out the extermination of every woman prevented any realistic approach toward genocide. Nowadays it seems the term genocide is bandied about quite a bit whenever one group feels particularly persecuted.

Some witch hunts did almost exclusively target women, in percentages as high as 95% of the victims.

Another interesting point is that the members of the legal system its "judges, ministers, priests, constables, jailers, judges, doctors, prickers, torturers, jurors, executioners" were nearly 100 percent male (Anne L.

In only a few small regions, like the Papal States and various Prince-Bishoprics in Germany, were religious and temporal government leaders one and the same.

But in all the rest of Western Europe, secular princes ultimately decided whether or not witches were hunted.

Usually the danger was seen in an organized conspiracy led by the Devil.Most authorities thought that witchcraft could do no serious harm, because it was not real.It took the arguments of theologians, a number of inquisitors manuals, and a series of papal bulls (written letters of judgment and command) to contradict that traditional Christian idea, and identify witchcraft with a dangerous heresy. And as Western Civilization in the 20th Century has carried on World Wars (with their trench warfare, strategic bombing, submarine warfare, poison gas, and propaganda), colonial imperialism (with its slave-like exploitation of labor, disparities between rich and poor, and cultural destruction), or totalitarian communism (with its collectivization, gulags, and secret police), it has no real right to criticize the Middle Ages as "barbaric." In any case, the most highly-educated, literate, well-trained, urban elites conducted most of the hunts. COMMENTARY: When the Witch Hunts first began to intensify, in the 1400s, one church hierarchy, what I call the Latin Catholic Church, dominated Western Civilization. In my opinion, this exaggerates the worst aspects of medieval times (religious fanaticism, primitive laws which readily apply violence, non-scientific thought, poor economic levels, and strict social hierarchies) to the disadvantage of its noble characteristics (an emphasis on faith, codes of conduct like chivalry, technological innovation, mutual obligations of social classes).(Eastern Christian, or Orthodox Churches carried out almost no witch hunting).None of these persecutions could have been carried out without the permission and cooperation of secular governments.Still, religious leaders carry a large share of the blame for the hunts, since secular princes often hunted witches on the advice of the clergy. COMMENTARY: Through most of recorded history, in most civilizations, until the last hundred years or so, women have been subordinated to men.Princes hunted witches because Church leaders taught them that witches were disturbers of the peace, destructors of property, and killers of animals and people. Many witch hunters, particularly the authors of the Malleus Maleficarum, held that women were far more susceptible to temptation by the Devil, and thus more frequently became witches.There are reasons why we should look at some aspects of the witch hunt as a crime against women, yet we should not go too far to make it only about women.I agree with Christine Larner who states that "Witchcraft was not sex-specific, but it was sex-related." #4.

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