Dating croatia russia
The data show that all the Neanderthal remains are from a much earlier period (Previous dating of the Vi-207 and Vi-208 Neanderthal remains from Vindija Cave (Croatia) led to the suggestion that Neanderthals survived there as recently as 28,000–29,000 B. Subsequent dating yielded older dates, interpreted as ages of at least ∼32,500 B. We have redated these same specimens using an approach based on the extraction of the amino acid hydroxyproline, using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (Prep-HPLC).This method is more efficient in eliminating modern contamination in the bone collagen. P., suggesting the Vindija Neanderthals did not live more recently than others across Europe, and probably predate the arrival of anatomically modern humans in Eastern Europe.The mitochondrial DNA sequence of Vi-207 was identical to Vi-33.25 and Feldhofer 1 mitochondrial genomes, whereas Vi-*28 had an identical mitochondrial sequence to Vi-33.17 (, Fig. Both Vi-33.25 and Vi-33.17 were found in layer I of Vindija Cave.As previously published, Vi-33.19 has the same mitochondrial sequence as Vi-33.16 (22).These dates suggest a co-occurrence of early Upper Paleolithic osseous artifacts, particularly split-based points, alongside the remains of Neanderthals is a result of postdepositional mixing, rather than an association between the two groups, although more work is required to show this definitively. Significant questions still remain regarding the precise nature of this transition, the humans responsible for the various transitional early Upper Paleolithic industries, the degree of overlap between Neanderthals and modern humans, and the timing of the disappearance of the former.
We decided to attempt to redate it, using a larger starting mass of bone powder.
All dates obtained on the four Neanderthal specimens at the ORAU are reported in Table 2.
We also list the dates obtained on two other hominin samples: Vi-75-G3/h-203, analyzed at the Uppsala Radiocarbon Laboratory (Sweden) (23), and Vi-2291-18 (level G, sublayer unknown), prepared at the Max Planck Institute, Leipzig, and dated at the ORAU (24).
The initial radiocarbon results were 29,080 ± 400 B. In addition to the Neanderthal remains, level G has yielded a small archaeological assemblage that contains techno-typologically Middle and Upper Paleolithic lithic artifacts plus several distinctively early Upper Paleolithic osseous points (12).
It has been argued that the mix of Neanderthals, Middle Paleolithic tools, and Upper Paleolithic technology was the result of cryoturbation and lithic assemblage has parallels with the Szeletian technocomplex, and further, that there is a mixture of elements of Szeletian and Aurignacian I and II within the level [see also Svoboda (18)].