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is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.It is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Turin (an administrative division of Italy) and of the Piedmont region, and was the first capital city of Italy from 1861 to 1865.The University of Turin was also founded during this period.Emmanuel Philibert, also known under the nickname of Iron Head (Testa 'd Fer), made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563.Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high city walls.After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the town was conquered by the Heruli and the Ostrogoths, recaptured by the Romans, but then conquered again by the Lombards and then the Franks of Charlemagne (773).
Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani, later incorporated into the Castello or Palazzo Madama.
Both Livy mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times.
In the 1st century BC (probably 28 BC), the Romans created a military camp (Castra Taurinorum), later dedicated to Augustus (Augusta Taurinorum).
At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants.
Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century when the city was redesigned.